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Skin Type


Normal Skin - Dry Skin - Oily Skin - Combination Skin

Normal Skin

  • The term "Normal Skin" refers to a well-balanced skin. The T-zone (forehead, chin and nose) may be a bit oily, but overall sebum and moisture is balanced and the skin is neither too oily nor too dry.
  • Normal Skin Has:
    • Fine Pores
    • Good blood circulation
    • Soft and Smooth Texture
    • No Blemishes
  • With aging the normal skin becomes dryer because of reduced oil, hyaluronic acid, collagen and peptides production.
  • It is essential to care for your skin early in life. Aging acts gradually and discretely on the skin, similarly to smoking on the lungs or sun damage on the skin. That's why the more you prevent it from happening the more youthful skin you will have, and the later you protect your skin from aging the more aging will affect your skin and the more oxidants and environmental stressors will cause damage to your skin.

Related Products: Facial Spa Serum, Ageless Defense Serum, Nature's Elixir Serum, Triple Elastin Pro Serum, Ultra C Moisturizer, Ultra Stem Moisturizer


Dry Skin


  • The term "Dry Skin" refers to a skin type that produces less oil than normal skin. As a result of the lack of oil, dry skin lacks the lipids that it needs to retain moisture and build a protective shield against external influences.
  • Dry skin (Xerosis) exists in varying degrees of severity.
  • Significantly more women suffer from dry skin than men
  • Noteworthy all skin types get dryer as it ages.


What causes dry skin

  • Normal skin naturally produces hygroscopic (water-binding) substances known as Natural Moisturizing Factors (NMFs) that keeps the skin protected and well-hydrated.
  • The first step in the moisture loss process is the loss of surface lipids that form a natural barrier on the skin to prevent water evaporation. Not having these lipids will cause the skin to become dry and wrinkled.
  • When the skin’s lipid barrier is impaired, moisture can be lost more easily. It evaporates out of the skin, leaving it dry. If this condition persists, moisture levels diminish in all the epidermal layers, resulting in significantly dry and early aging skin.
  • Dry skin is caused by both exogenous (external) and endogenous (internal) factors.
    • Internal factors include Genetics, Hormonal balance, age and diet.
    • External causes of dry skin include: sun exposure, dehydration, smoking.


Caring for dry skin

  • Cleansing: When cleansing dry or very dry skin, it is vital that the cleanser is effective yet gentle enough not to wash away the skin´s own lipids. Ideally, it should also be enriched with Natural Moisturizing Factors (NMFs) which bind moisture into the skin. Mild cleansing of the face is particularly important as the use of unsuitable products can increase dryness, which can contribute to the development of fine lines and wrinkles.

Related Products: Dead Sea Nature's Cleanse Foaming Cleanser

  • Moisturizing: Regular moisturizer use is also essential when caring for dry skin. Moisturizers should contain Natural Moisturizing Factors such as fatty acids, ceramides, Hyaluronic acid, collagens and peptides to maintain longer periods of hydration and deeper moisturization.

Related Products: Facial Spa Serum, Ageless Defense Serum, Ultra C Moisturizer, Ultra Stem Moisturizer


  • Caring for age-induced skin dryness
  • As the skin ages it gets dryer. Skin dryness contributes to the development of fine lines and wrinkles. Moisturizing becomes even more important to prevent the development of further wrinkles, especially on the face. Hyaluronic Acid is a molecule that reduces the appearance of dry lines and wrinkles. Hyaluronic Acid is naturally found in the skin, and is an essential component of connective tissue. Hyaluronic acid decreases in the skin as we age making aging skin dry. Hyaluronic acid has high water binding capacities, improves skin regeneration, and enhances the diffusion of nutrients. Using moisturizers or serums that contain Hyaluronic acid, collagen and peptides is important for deep and prolonged hydration.

Related Products: Facial Spa Serum, Ageless Defense Serum, Ultra C Moisturizer, Ultra Stem Moisturizer


Oily Skin


  • The term "Oily Skin" is used to describe a skin type with heightened sebum production. This over production is known as seborrhea. Sebum is produced in the skin’s sebaceous glands and is transported to the skin’s surface where it contributes to skin protection. Oily skin is characterized by a glossy shine and enlarged and visible pores.
  • Oily skin is prone to comedones (blackheads and whiteheads) and these can lead to acne and blemishes. Acne is a non-contagious skin condition where pimples appear on the face and frequently on the neck, shoulders, back and chest too. Acne is most common in adolescents, but symptoms can persist into adulthood.


What causes oily skin

The following factors are known by medical professionals to make some people more prone to acne than others:

  • Genetics:Genes determine our skin type and some of us have skin that is more reactive and prone to inflammation, blemishes and acne than others. I
  • Hormones:Acne is a hormonal disease. Hormones are responsible for the development of the sebaceous glands and they also stimulate sebum production in those sebaceous glands (an overproduction of sebum is one of the symptoms that defines blemish-prone skin). The increase of hormones during puberty is the main reason why acne is most prevalent in adolescence.
  • Medication: Some medicines - such as steroids and lithium - can cause acne.
  • Diet: A diet with a high glycemic index and lots of dairy products may trigger or exacerbate acne.
  • Stress: Stress can trigger hormones which in turn stimulate sebum production and exacerbate acne.
  • Smoking:Research indicates that smoking exacerbates acne by causing oxidative stress to skin and altering sebum composition.
  • Inappropriate skincare:Harsh, soap-based cleansers and water that is too hot can disrupt skin’s natural balance and exacerbate symptoms. Some skincare products and make-up are also comedogenic


Acne and Blemishes

How do Acne and Blemishes develop?

  • Inflammation: Acne is an inflammatory disease and inflammation is present at every stage of its development. As we know, our genetics and hormones make some of us more prone to inflammation than others. Micro-inflammation (non-visible inflammation) is a root cause of acne and can be triggered by many different factors including changes in hormones, bacteria and changes in the composition of sebum on the surface of skin.
  • Seborrhea:The sebaceous glands secrete an oily substance called sebum that keeps skin and hair supple. Excess sebum production (triggered by hormones), which typifies blemish and acne prone skin, is known as seborrhea. Excess sebum on skin’s surface interferes with the natural process by which skin sheds dead cells (known as desquamation). The composition of the sebum lipids which build up in the sebaceous glands also cause further micro-inflammation.
  • Hyperkeratosis:Hyperkeratosis is an abnormal thickening of the external layers of skin. It is caused by excessive cell production (triggered by hormones) and inadequate desquamation of dead cells. These cells form plugs that block the sebacous glands. Sebum builds up and the follicle wall bulges causing comedones (blackheads and whiteheads).
  • Bacteria:Propinionbacterium acnes (or P. acnes) is a bacteria that normally lives harmlessly on skin’s surface, but people with blemish- and acne-prone skin can be more sensitive to it and it can trigger inflammation. Excessive sebum production also creates an enviornment which helps P. acnes to grow. It starts to colonize the duct of the plugged sebaceous gland causing further inflammation and leading to papules and pustules.
  • In severe cases the follicular wall bursts in the late stages of inflammation. Lipids, fatty acids, corneocytes (cells), bacteria and cell fragments are released and can cause further inflammation in the surrounding skin.


Caring for oily and acne prone skin

  • Mild surfactants:Cleansing is an important step to caring for oily and blemish-prone skin, but harsh cleansers can strip skin of its natural balance and exacerbate symptoms. Look out for mild to moderate, soap-free cleansers.

Related Products: Dead Sea Nature's Cleanse Foaming Cleanser

  • Peeling agents: These are a cornerstone in caring for oily, acne prone skin. Use the peeling agents once or twice daily to assist with desquamation of dead cells. The most commonly used peeling agents in skincare products are AHAs (Alpha Hydroxy Acids)(AHAs include Citric Acid, Glycolic Acid, Hydroxycaproic Acid, Hydroxycaprylic Acid, Lactic Acid, Malic Acid, Tartaric Acid). AHAs are primarily used to exfoliate dead skin layers and prevent acne formation, promote collagen and blood flow, fight skin aging, correct discoloration from scars and age spots, improve appearance of surface lines and wrinkles, prevent acne breakouts, brighten your complexion and increase product absorption. BHAs (Beta Hydroxy Acids) (mainly Salicylic Acid) are particularly effective at fighting deep blocked pores and bacterial growth. BHAs are more lipid soluble than AHAs which allow them to work deeper in cleaning the pores from sebum, debris and black heads. BHAs act as a keratolytic (meaning it removes dead skin cells and softens skin to help prevent blocked pores) and a comedolytic (which means it opens up clogged pores). BHAs reduce blemishes and prevent the build-up of new blemishes. The main source of natural Salicylic Acid is Willow Bark.

Related Products: Hibiscus Natures Scrub

  • Sebum regulating ingredients: Look out for products that are able to regulate the amount of sebum your skin produces. Ingredients such as Licochalcone A is a powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory extracted from the root of the Chinese Liquorice plant. It reduces redness, helps to soothe inflammation. L-Carnitine (high concentration in Avocado and Buckwheat) help cells to absorb free fatty acids where the mitochondria turn them into energy. This reduces the amount left over to form sebum, thereby controlling sebum production.

Related Products: Hibiscus Natures Scrub

  • Ceramides:These important lipids strengthen the skin barrier helping to prevent moisture loss and keeping out irritants that can cause inflammation and itchiness.
  • Related Products: Hibiscus Natures Scrub
  • Non-comedogenic coverage: Only use skin care, concealers and make-up products that have been specially formulated for acne-prone skin
  • Sun protection: Blemishes can cause pigmentation issues if over-exposed to the sun, and acne medications can make skin more sensitive to UV rays, so it’s important to use appropriate sun protection.
  • Look after yourself:Exercise, a good night’s sleep and a healthy, balanced diet will help you to stay healthy and positive overall, reduce stress (which can trigger hormones and exacerbate acne) and improve your skin’s natural resilience. Try to stop smoking too.
  • Medical treatment:There is a selection of options available for acne. Your doctor will be able to advise which is best for you. If you are undergoing medical treatment we recommend you consult your physician when using any products.


Combination Skin

  • A face can have 2 different skin types simultaneously and this is known as combination skin.
  • In combination skin the skin types vary in the T-zone and the cheeks. The so-called T-zone can differ substantially – from a very slim zone to an extended area.
  • Combination skin is characterised by:
    • an oily T-zone (forehead, chin and nose)
    • enlarged pores in this area perhaps with some impurities
    • normal to dry cheeks
  • The oilier parts of combination skin are caused by an over production of sebum. The drier parts of combination skin are caused by a lack of sebum and a corresponding lipid deficiency.